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For age-specific analyses, 5-year age groups were used that were given by years, years, years, years, years, years, years and 85 years or older. You can help correct errors and omissions. Discussion The underlying study provides representative data on prevalence rates and comorbidities of osteoporosis based on the German population aged 50 years and older. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; Depression risk in female patients with osteoporosis in primary care practices in Germany. Klaus Weckbecker, Email: ed. The study involved the use of a previously-published de-identified database secondary data analysis so ethics approval and participant consent was not necessary [ 22 ]. Robert Koch-Institut. My bibliography Save this article. A separate regression model was fitted for each comorbidity.❿
 
 

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Deviating methodical procedures might be responsible for differences in prevalence. Results of studies examining the relationship between smoking and osteoporosis as well as alcohol consumption and osteoporosis including low BMD and fracture risk are inconsistent [ 33 — 37 ].

There was also no clear evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and smoking in the present study. While the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly lower for higher educated adults in comparison to adults with a low educational level, results of the present regression analysis revealed no significant effects. Prevalence rates may be biased as a consequence of misclassification as our results are based on self-reported diagnoses that were not clinically verified.

Since osteoporosis is not associated with any symptoms prior to a fracture and information on possible fractures were not available within GEDA, prevalence rates may be underestimated by not taking account of yet undiagnosed adults. On the other hand, considering arthritis, for example, prevalence rates may be overestimated as it is known that patients with other joint disorders often falsely state to suffer from rheumatoid arthritis [ 20 , 39 ].

Using self-reported information on sociodemographic characteristics such as BMI values may lead to biased estimates as well reporting bias.

Moreover, only adults living in private households were contacted, hospitalized adults or adults living in care homes could not be considered. As all interviews were carried out in German, adults had to speak and understand German, thus marginalized groups such as migrants could not be regarded [ 20 ]. Low-level educated adults agreed less often to participate in the telephone interview than people with a medium or high level of education [ 20 ].

A weighting factor provided by the Robert Koch Institute was used to approach the adult residential population structure in Germany [ 20 ]. Osteoporosis represents a major public health concern and its prevention is crucial to the maintenance of health [ 40 ].

It is a systemic condition characterized by changes in bone microarchitecture and a reduction of bone mass, both of which lead to decreased bone strength and at the same time to increased fracture risks. As a consequence, treatment at all ages aims at retaining bone mass to prevent any type of fracture e. Fractures with severe complications are serious consequences of osteoporosis that have an influence on morbidity, functional impairment of health, a decrease in quality of life as well as an increase in medical costs [ 40 , 41 ].

Additionally, at the time of a fracture, comorbidities in osteoporosis patients play a key role. Further, drug-drug interactions may affect the progress of the disease. Regarding osteoporosis, especially the consumption of drugs that have an effect on bone metabolism is of interest.

In GEDA however, data on the use of pharmaceuticals were not collected and an evaluation of the use of different drug classes could therefore not be done. In the present study nearly all adults with osteoporosis reported at least one comorbid condition, but the cross-sectional design did not allow for an analysis of cause and effect. In the GEDA study population participants that stated to suffer from osteoporosis were for example more than twice as likely to also suffer from depression.

Drosselmeyer et al. Physical disability following fractures affects the capacity for independent living and complicates social participation. Besides, as physical activity is reduced in depressive patients but important to improve or at least stabilize bone mineral density, it would be important to recognize and treat the disease early.

Of interest is also the association between arthrosis and osteoporosis. In the present study, participants with osteoporosis showed more than three times higher odds of having arthrosis. However, in most cross-sectional studies [ 43 ], arthrosis was negatively connected with osteoporosis in the sense that people with arthrosis showed higher BMD.

Despite this negative association, the risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with arthrosis remains the same [ 43 ]. Generally, arthrosis is associated with stiffness and pain in the affected joints, and this may reduce physical activity, which subsequently leads to instability and higher fracture risks.

Hence, the relation of osteoporosis and arthrosis appears to be very complex and needs to be analysed further. The disease burden in adults with osteoporosis is of high relevance. Physicians need to be aware of the high occurrence of multimorbidity in adults with osteoporosis.

Health care interventions for affected patients should be expanded by offering early or even preventive care for other diseases that go along with it. The dataset analysed during the present study is available from the Robert Koch Institute for researchers who meet the criteria for access, [doi: EM and MTP devised the basic idea for the manuscript.

MTP performed the statistical analysis, with contributions by EM. MTP and MK drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ethics approval and participant consent was not necessary as this study involved the use of a previously-published de-identified database secondary data analysis according to national guidelines and recommendations in secondary data analysis [ 22 ]. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Manuela Klaschik, Email: ed. Matthias Schmid, Email: ed. Klaus Weckbecker, Email: ed. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received Dec 22; Accepted Apr Abstract Background Knowledge on prevalence of osteoporosis stratifying for socioeconomic background is insufficient in Germany. Results Overall, 8.

Conclusions There was no clear evidence of socioeconomic differences regarding osteoporosis for adults in Germany. Background Osteoporosis and its consequences are a major public health concern and amount in high expenses for health care systems [ 1 , 2 ]. Results The total number of participants aged 50 years and older was 10, Female Medium Ex-smoker Never Open in a separate window. Discussion The underlying study provides representative data on prevalence rates and comorbidities of osteoporosis based on the German population aged 50 years and older.

Conclusions The disease burden in adults with osteoporosis is of high relevance. Availability of data and materials The dataset analysed during the present study is available from the Robert Koch Institute for researchers who meet the criteria for access, [doi: Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Ethics approval and participant consent was not necessary as this study involved the use of a previously-published de-identified database secondary data analysis according to national guidelines and recommendations in secondary data analysis [ 22 ].

Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. Reginster J-Y, Burlet N. Osteoporosis: a still increasing prevalence. Osteoporosis in the European Union: a compendium of country-specific reports.

Arch Osteoporos. World Health Organization. Accessed 03 Apr Differences in adults’ health and health behaviour between 16 European urban areas and the associations with socio-economic status and physical and social environment. Eur J Pub Health. Robert Koch-Institut. Gesundheitliche Ungleichheit in verschiedenen Lebensphasen.

Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes. Gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis. Accessed 24 May Socioeconomic inequalities in morbidity and mortality in western Europe. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries.

N Engl J Med. The association between socioeconomic status and osteoporotic fracture in population-based adults: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. Association between socioeconomic status and bone mineral density in adults: a systematic review.

Risk factors in osteoporosis. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Assessment of fracture risk. Public Use File first Version. Gesundheitsmonitoring am Robert Koch-Institut. Sachstand und Perspektiven Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. Int J Epidemiol. Accessed 02 May In: Gabler S, editor. Telefonstichproben in Deutschland. Opladen u. Kish L.

A procedure for objective respondent selection within the household. J Am Stat Assoc. RKI, Berlin. Accessed 31 Jan Accessed 04 Oct Obesity – preventing and managing the global epidemic: report on a WHO consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; Alcohol use disorders identification test. Arch Intern Med.

Marko Kryvobokov, Xiaolong Liu, Tracking spatial location of clusters of geographically weighted regression estimates of price determinants ,” Land Use Policy , Elsevier, vol. More about this item Keywords Real estate market ; Automated valuation models ; Investment ; Geocoding ; French cities ; Machine learning ; Artificial intelligence ; All these keywords.

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If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the “citations” tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing email available below.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services. Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books. FRED data. My bibliography Save this article. Real estate price estimation in French cities using geocoding and machine learning. This paper reviews real estate price estimation in France, a market that has received little attention.

We compare seven popular machine learning techniques by proposing a different approach that quantifies the relevance of location features in real estate price estimation with high and fine levels of granularity. We take advantage of a newly available open dataset provided by the French government that contains 5 years of historical data of real estate transactions.

At a low level of granularity, we use geocoding to add precise geographical location features to the machine learning algorithm inputs. Our results also reveal that neural networks and random forest techniques particularly outperform other methods when geocoding features are not accounted for, while random forest, adaboost and gradient boosting perform well when geocoding features are considered.

For identifying opportunities in the real estate market through real estate price prediction, our results can be of particular interest. They can also serve as a basis for price assessment in revenue management for durable and non-replenishable products such as real estate. Handle: RePEc:spr:annopr:vyid Most related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.

 

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