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Apart from these tests, the proposed approach is also compared with some of the active contour models based on some standard parameters like accuracy, precision, and recall. This comparison is performed by using the database that is available at . This dataset is created by collecting sample images from 49 patients with age range 32—86 years. The obtained average results are reported in Table 8. The rate of convergence is an important parameter to be studied.
The performance evaluation remains incomplete without studying and comparing the convergence of different algorithms. The convergence analysis gives a clear view of the comparative performance of different algorithms for the different numbers of clusters.
The graphical analysis of the convergence is presented in this subsection using the image T e s t 01 for the Dunn index.
In Fig. In a single plot, four separate curves are indicating four different clusters. These curves show that the proposed approach can efficiently segment the images for a higher number of clusters.
Moreover, the proposed approach also outperforms some other methods in terms of convergence besides quantitative and qualitative performance. The time complexity is an important aspect that is to be analyzed. From the detailed discussion of the proposed approach, it can be noticed that the proposed approach can be viewed as a two-phase procedure where the watershed-based computation approach is used to determine the superpixel image from the underlying image in the first phase and the optimal segmented outcome is computed in the second phase.
The task of optimization is performed using the proposed fuzzy ACSO approach. The gradient information of an image is used to avoid the noise sensitivity of the water-shed based superpixel computation process. The watershed-based technique is a simple method to compute the superpixel and the implementation follows linear complexity . It is quite inspiring and lucrative to adopt this approach on different occasions. In the optimization part, the fuzzy objective function is optimized by using the proposed fuzzy ACSO method.
The ACSO approach is an effective and efficient approach that can be executed in linear time . So, the proposed approach is efficient enough and can be effectively used in various real-life problem-solving scenarios.
This approach can effectively process high-quality images with the help of the proposed superpixel-based approach that is an essential quality for the real-life application of an image segmentation approach. This approach removes the dependency of choice of the initial cluster centers as well as the ACSO approach determines the optimal cluster centers by optimizing some validity indices.
These advantages motivate us to apply the proposed approach to automatically segment the radiological images that will be certainly helpful in diagnosing some symptoms of COVID The experimental outcomes show the efficiency of the proposed approach. Under this pandemic environment, this work is designed hoping that it can help physicians and other domain experts to some extent in the early diagnosis of the disease.
Early diagnosis can prevent the drastic spread of this highly infectious virus. Quantitative results do not have any direct implications in real-life diagnosis.
The segmented outcomes are useful in the diagnosis process. Physicians can investigate the segmented outcomes to find some prominent and common features as mentioned in Table 2.
The segmented images will be helpful in the easy interpretation of the radiological images. The proposed SUFACSO approach is an efficient image segmentation approach that can effectively segment the radiological images that highly useful in the easy interpretation of these images.
There is a high possibility that a suspected patient can spread the disease in the community completely unwillingly. The proposed approach can reduce this chance because an initial screening can be performed by the physicians comfortable with the help of the proposed SUFACSO approach.
It is worth mentioning here that the proposed approach is neither a replacement of the RT-PCR test nor it can confirm the presence of the virus accurately. However, this approach can be helpful in an initial screening at an early stage that will restrict the spread of this highly infectious virus by separating suspected patients from the rest of the community.
The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for real-life scenarios and also performs efficiently.
This approach can be easily adapted for the automated screening purposes of the COVID infected patients. It is assumed the quality of the CT scan images is considerably high and the performance of the proposed approach is not verified against the presence of noise. It will be interesting to study the proposed approach in the presence of noise. The scalability of the proposed approach to different types of biomedical images can be explored in future studies.
Missing manual annotations can jeopardize the generalizability of the proposed work. On the other hand, the obtained results are quite promising and encouraging. From the best of the knowledge of the authors, there is no publicly available manually annotated dataset for the chest CT scan images of the COVID positive cases. Although the proposed approach is efficient enough to segment the CT scan images automatically and produces realistic segmented outcomes still, some important drawbacks can be observed in this proposed approach that can be addressed in the subsequent works.
One important drawback of the proposed approach is that it cannot automatically determine the number of clusters and it can be overcome in future works. Automated estimation of the clusters can make this approach more realistic, robust, and application friendly. The proposed method can handle only a single objective at a time. Therefore, the proposed approach is not suitable for multi-objective optimization issues unless enhanced further. The number of images in the dataset is not very large.
So, the proposed approach can also be tested on some additional CT images of COVID infection as well as on some standard dataset of the biomedical images. It neither use any training dataset nor uses any pre-trained model. The proposed approach can effectively segment the radiological images that are collected from different patients i. It is to be clarified that this approach cannot take any decision about the type of disease automatically. For example, the proposed approach cannot automatically differentiate between COVID related lung images and other lung diseases.
This approach aims to help physicians in early and quick interpretation of the radiological images and diagnosis of the diseases without any manual delineations.
This article proposes a novel, simple and elegant solution that uses some of the important features of the chest CT scan images to screen the COVID suspected patients easily and at an early phase which can be considered as an effective tool to reduce the drastic spread of this virus.
From Fig. Both qualitative and quantitative study produces some satisfactory results which help to make the proposed approach trustworthy so that it can be reliably adapted in the real-world scenarios.
The proposed approach initially performs a superpixel-based clustering using the proposed superpixel computation method which significantly reduces the computational overhead for the further clustering process by reducing a large amount of spatial information. Therefore, radiological images can be conveniently explicated with the application of the proposed method and the proposed approach is also helpful in the easy interpretation of the radiological images.
The proposed work neither claims that the suggested approach is cent percent accurate in determining the COVID infection nor claims that it can be a replacement of the RT-PCR test but, the proposed method can help detect some common characteristics from the CT scan images, that can help to isolate some suspected patients from the rest of the community. The proposed approach is helpful for the early screening of the COVID besides being a significant contribution to the image segmentation literature.
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. The authors would like to express their gratitude and thank the editors, anonymous reviewers, and referees for their valuable comments and suggestions which are helpful in further improvement of this research work.
The dedicated graphics memory is not utilized for any kind of processing purposes. The system in which the experiments are carried out is equipped with the Microsoft Windows 7 64 bit operating system.
It is not at all essential to use the Matlab environment to implement the proposed approach. We have chosen Matlab due to the availability of some inbuilt functions which are helpful to reduce the coding complexity. Still, any other languages or platforms can be used to implement the same. It is assumed that there are no manual annotations available and the proposed approach is capable to process the images without having any prior knowledge.
The final segmented images are constructed by assigning the superpixel to their corresponding cluster centers. These segmented images are helpful to interpret different features from these radiological images.
Appl Soft Comput. Published online Feb 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. All rights reserved. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre – including this research content – immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.
Abstract Due to the absence of any specialized drugs, the novel coronavirus disease or COVID is one of the biggest threats to mankind Although the RT-PCR test is the gold standard to confirm the presence of this virus, some radiological investigations find some important features from the CT scans of the chest region, which are helpful to identify the suspected COVID patients.
Introduction Automated computer-aided systems prove their effectiveness and real-life applicability in various scenarios. Table 1 Some of the related literatures and their brief overview. The calibrated source-to-background curves are used to determine the volume using the iterative thresholding procedure.
One major drawback of the system is that it cannot effectively measure small volumes. Wiemker et. This work proposes a divergence theorem and histogram-based Ct image segmentation approach.
This approach is can effectively and optimally isolate the lung nodules from the CT scan images. In this context, the optimality is defined in terms of the mean gradient of the iso-surface and the sphericity. Asari et. This algorithm is consisting of two stages where the first stage employs a global thresholding approach and in the second phase, the differential region growing is used to extract the gastrointestinal lumen from the endoscopic images.
The dynamic hill-clustering approach is used to ascertain the effectiveness of the termination criteria and to look after the growth process. Yu-qian et. Traditional gradient-based edge detection approaches are susceptible to noise and therefore, this approach proposes a novel approach to detect edges of the lung CT scan images using mathematical morphology.
This approach is tested on the CT images which are corrupted with the salt-and-pepper noise and its efficiency is proved by comparing this approach with some of the other standard approaches. It is observed that this approach can efficiently reduce the effect of noise and also can generate precise edges. Falcao et. This approach is highly dependent on the user intervention to efficiently determine the segmented regions and to define the objects.
This approach is found to be 3 to 15 times faster compared to manual tracing. This approach can be applied almost independently to the applications. One main problem associated with this method is the difficulties associated with the choice of slabs and orthogonal slices which has a serious impact on the efficiency of this approach. Pan et. The proposed approach addresses the problem of discontinuous edges and dependency on the initialization which are associated with the traditional edge detection approaches.
In this work, the intensity of the gradient images is modeled as the concentration of the nutrients and the property of the bacteria Escherichia coli. The edges are highlighted as the paths of the bacteria. Although this approach performs well and comparative study shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach still, one problem of this approach is not very robust to noise.
Noise can lead to crumpled edges. This approach is not also suitable to handle overlapped cells. Ji et. Traditional fuzzy C-means clustering approach does not consider the spatial information and less robust to noise. This work proposes a modification which is known as the weighted image patch-based FCM.
In this work, pixels are replaced with the weighted patches which is helpful to incorporate spatial information in the segmentation process. It is helpful to increase the reliability of the overall segmentation process but it also increases the computational overhead drastically. Agrawal et. This work proposes a novel hybrid approach which is based on the genetic algorithm and the bacterial foraging algorithm. The combination of these two approaches is used to optimize the objective function of the fuzzy c-means clustering.
The final cluster centers are obtained using a method called optimum boundary point detection. This approach cannot determine the optimal number of clusters automatically and produces inaccurate results if the predefined clusters and the actual number of clusters differ.
This approach is based on intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and it is known as the intuitionistic fuzzy C means clustering. In this work, a novel objective function which is known as intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is incorporated with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering. This approach is applied to different CT scan images to prove its efficiency. Miao et. This approach can be divided into two phases where the first phase incorporates a dictionary learning method to handle the noise.
In the second phase, this dictionary learning approach is hybridized with the Improved fuzzy c-means clustering approach. The proposed approach is not efficient for medical images with inhomogeneous intensity distribution. Open in a separate window.
A brief overview of the artificial cell swarm optimization procedure This is a recently developed metaheuristic procedure that is inspired by the artificial cell division procedure. The incorporated modifications are listed below  : i. The artificial cells are not depending on the current state to participate in the cell division process. Fuzzy C-means clustering based on type 2 fuzzy system The proposed approach adopts the type 2 fuzzy logic-based clustering approach to effectively model and handle the random uncertainties.
A point with higher uncertainty has a lesser impact on the overall clustering process and vice-versa. It helps to achieve more realistic results. Proposed method of superpixel computation The ever-growing technology allows us to increase the quality of the image acquisition hardware. Table 3 Details of the CT scan images under test. Proposed superpixel coupled fuzzy ACSO approach-based segmentation The conventional fuzzy C-means clustering approach often overlooks some important spatial information that can be costly in terms of the segmentation performance.
Dataset description CT scan images of the chest region are collected from the COVID positive patients from different geographic regions. Experimental results The experiments are performed in the MatLab Ra on a computer that is equipped with an Intel i3 processor and 4 GB main memory. Table 4 Performance evaluation of different approaches using Davies—Bouldin index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values.
Image Id Algorithm No. Table 5 Performance evaluation of different approaches using Xie—Beni index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values. Table 6 Performance evaluation of different approaches using Dunn index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values. Table 8 Comparison of the proposed approach with the active contour method. Study of the convergence rate The rate of convergence is an important parameter to be studied.
Analysis of the complexity The time complexity is an important aspect that is to be analyzed. Discussion 6. Threats to validity The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for real-life scenarios and also performs efficiently. Limitations Although the proposed approach is efficient enough to segment the CT scan images automatically and produces realistic segmented outcomes still, some important drawbacks can be observed in this proposed approach that can be addressed in the subsequent works.
Conclusion This article proposes a novel, simple and elegant solution that uses some of the important features of the chest CT scan images to screen the COVID suspected patients easily and at an early phase which can be considered as an effective tool to reduce the drastic spread of this virus. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to express their gratitude and thank the editors, anonymous reviewers, and referees for their valuable comments and suggestions which are helpful in further improvement of this research work.
Software setup The system in which the experiments are carried out is equipped with the Microsoft Windows 7 64 bit operating system. References 1. Kim T. Learning full pairwise affinities for spectral segmentation. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Chakraborty S. In: Chakraborty S. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog well, almost Excellent job.
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In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs by default; Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally.
Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance. Devices with supported cameras requiring infrared illumination, such as Intel RealSense allow users to log in with iris or face recognition , similarly to Kinect.
Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February In , researchers demonstrated that Windows Hello could be bypassed on fully-updated Windows 10 version with a color printout of a person’s picture taken with an IR camera. However, a PIN is not a simpler password. While passwords are transmitted to domain controllers , PINs are not.
They are tied to one device, and if compromised, only one device is affected. As such, the authentication token transmitted to the server is harder to crack. In addition, whereas weak passwords may be broken via rainbow tables , TPM causes the much-simpler Windows PINs to be resilient to brute-force attacks. When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport not to be confused with the Passport platform of Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello.
Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits , and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself. Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console if needed.
The Anniversary Update added Windows Subsystem for Linux WSL , which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linux distribution that runs natively on Windows. The subsystem translates Linux system calls to those of the Windows NT kernel only claims full system call compatibility as of WSL 2, included in a later Windows update.
The environment can execute the Bash shell and bit command-line programs WSL 2 also supports bit Linux programs and graphics, assuming supporting software installed,  and GPUs support for other uses .
Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs , which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance.
Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge , a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards -compliant rendering engine derived from Trident , and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed into a single button.
Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing , setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails.
Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services. Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage.
Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network.
Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile. Windows 10 provides greater integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion formerly the Xbox app , which allows users to browse their game library including both PC and Xbox console games , and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut , allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.
Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced Game Bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the storage device.
Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces compared to Windows 8, but omits several others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection. Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computing devices; the Home and Pro editions of which are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at power users and small businesses.
Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as BitLocker , Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain. Enterprise and Education, the other editions, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing.
As part of Microsoft’s unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10’s common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines. An updated version of Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile. On May 2, , Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S referred to in leaks as Windows 10 Cloud , a feature-limited edition of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market competing, in particular, with ChromeOS netbooks , such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time.
The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation. As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, A public beta program for Windows 10 known as the Windows Insider Program began with the first publicly available preview release on October 1, Insider preview builds are aimed towards enthusiasts and enterprise users for the testing and evaluation of updates and new features.
On July 29, , Microsoft officially announced that Windows 10 would be released for retail purchase as a free upgrade from earlier versions of Windows. In comparison to previous Windows releases, which had a longer turnover between the release to manufacturing RTM and general release to allow for testing by vendors and in some cases, the development of “upgrade kits” to prepare systems for installation of the new version , an HP executive explained that because it knew Microsoft targeted the operating system for a release, the company was able to optimize its then-current and upcoming products for Windows 10 in advance of its release, negating the need for such a milestone.
The general availability build of Windows 10, numbered , was first released to Windows Insider channels for pre-launch testing on July 15, , prior to its formal release. Windows 10 is distributed digitally through the “Media Creation Tool”, which is functionally identical to the Windows 8 online installer, and can also be used to generate an ISO image or USB install media.
Changing between architectures e. Windows 10 was available in countries and languages upon its launch, and as part of efforts to “re-engage” with users in China, Microsoft also announced that it would partner with Qihoo and Tencent to help promote and distribute Windows 10 in China, and that Chinese PC maker Lenovo would provide assistance at its service centers and retail outlets for helping users upgrade to Windows Windows RT devices cannot be upgraded to Windows During its first year of availability,  upgrade licenses for Windows 10 could be obtained at no charge for devices with a genuine license for an eligible edition of Windows 7 or 8.
This offer did not apply to Enterprise editions, as customers under an active Software Assurance SA contract with upgrade rights are entitled to obtain Windows 10 Enterprise under their existing terms.
All users running non-genuine copies of Windows, and those without an existing Windows 7 or 8 license, were ineligible for this promotion; although upgrades from a non-genuine version were possible, they result in a non-genuine copy of On the general availability build of Windows 10 the original release , to activate and generate the “digital entitlement” for Windows 10, the operating system must have first been installed as an in-place upgrade.
During the free upgrade, a genuineticket. Once installed, the operating system can be reinstalled on that particular system via normal means without a product key , and the system’s license will automatically be detected via online activation – in essence, the Microsoft Product Activation Server will remember the system’s motherboard and give it the green light for product re-activation. Since the release of the Fall Creators Update version , Microsoft decided to release multi-edition installation media, to alleviate installation and product activation issues users experienced because of accidentally installing the wrong edition of Windows The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself to the generally released version as part of the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process.
Microsoft explicitly stated that Windows Insider was not a valid upgrade path for those running a version of Windows that is ineligible for the upgrade offer; although, if it was not installed with a license carried over from an in-place upgrade to 10 Insider Preview from Windows 7 or 8, the Insider Preview does remain activated as long as the user does not exit the Windows Insider program.
The offer was promoted and delivered via the “Get Windows 10” application also known as GWX , which was automatically installed via Windows Update ahead of Windows 10’s release, and activated on systems deemed eligible for the upgrade offer.
Via a notification area icon, users could access an application that advertised Windows 10 and the free upgrade offer, check device compatibility, and “reserve” an automatic download of the operating system upon its release. Microsoft said that those who reserved Windows 10 would be able to install it through GWX in a phased rollout process. The operating system could alternatively be downloaded at any time using a separate “Media Creation Tool” setup program, that allows for the creation of DVD or USB installation media.
In May , Microsoft announced that the free upgrade offer would be extended to users of assistive technologies ; however, Microsoft did not implement any means of certifying eligibility for this offer, which some outlets thereby promoted as being a loophole to fraudulently obtain a free Windows 10 upgrade.
Microsoft said that the loophole is not intended to be used in this manner. However, another loophole was found that allowed Windows 7 and 8. No word from Microsoft was given whether it will be closed  and some outlets have continued to promote it as a free method of upgrading from the now-unsupported Windows 7.
During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key. Instead, the license status of the system’s current installation of Windows is migrated, and a “Digital license” known as “Digital entitlement” in version or earlier is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process.
If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation such as a motherboard change , the online activation process will automatically recognize the system’s digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations. However, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows As with previous non-volume-licensed variants of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.
Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates including patches, feature updates, and driver software are downloaded and installed automatically. Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot. Version allows wired Ethernet networks to be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network.
In version , by installing the August security update and later versions, driver and non-security updates pushed via Windows Update that are considered optional are no longer automatically downloaded and installed in their devices. Updates can cause compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled. Under the Windows end-user license agreement , users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent “without any additional notice” to the possibility of features being modified or removed.
Windows Update can also use a peer-to-peer system for distributing updates; by default, users’ bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers. Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions.
Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January The following table collects current status of the aforementioned updating and support of different branches of Windows Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a “service”, as it receives regular “feature updates” that contain new features and other updates and fixes. For example, version was released in September the ninth month of This was changed with the 20H2 release where “MM” represents the half of the year in which the update was released, for example H1 for the first half and H2 for the second half.
Before version , the pace at which feature updates are received by devices was dependent on which release channel was used.
Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the “Semi-Annual Channel” formerly “Current Branch for Business”, or “CBB” , which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, “Dev” which receives new builds immediately after their release , and “Beta” whose releases are slightly delayed from their “Dev” release.
For this reason, it excludes Cortana, Microsoft Store, and all bundled Universal Windows Platform apps including but not limited to Microsoft Edge, hence these builds ship only with Internet Explorer as browser. In July , Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office ProPlus and Windows Server In February , Microsoft announced changes again in delivering updates in beginning of release of version : a single SAC will be released and SAC-T will be retired, and users are no longer able to switch to different channels.
Instead, these updates can be deferred from 30 to 90 days, or depending how the device was configured to deferred the updates. Feature updates prior to version were distributed solely as an in-place upgrade installation, requiring the download of a complete operating system package approximately 3. Unlike previous builds, version was designed primarily as an update rollup version of , which focused primarily on minor feature additions and enhancements. For upgrades to from , a new delivery method was used where its changes were delivered as part of the monthly cumulative update, but were left in a dormant state until the update “enablement” patch is installed.
The full upgrade process was still used for those using builds prior to In May , Microsoft unveiled Fluent Design System previously codenamed “Project Neon” , a revamp of Microsoft Design Language 2 that will include guidelines for the designs and interactions used within software designed for all Windows 10 devices and platforms. The new design language will include the more prominent use of motion, depth, and translucency effects.
Microsoft stated that the implementation of this design language would be performed over time, and it had already started to implement elements of it in Creators Update and Fall Creators Update. On December 7, , Microsoft announced that, as part of a partnership with Qualcomm, it planned to introduce support for running Win32 software on ARM architecture with a bit x86 processor emulator, in Terry Myerson stated that this move would enable the production of Qualcomm Snapdragon -based Windows devices with cellular connectivity and improved power efficiency over Intel-compatible devices, and still capable of running the majority of existing Windows software unlike the previous Windows RT , which was restricted to Windows Store apps.
Microsoft is initially targeting this project towards laptops. In August , Microsoft began testing changes to its handling of the user interface on convertible devices—downplaying the existing “Tablet Mode” option in favor of presenting the normal desktop with optimizations for touch when a keyboard is not present, such as increasing the space between taskbar buttons and displaying the virtual keyboard when text fields are selected.
In April , the ability to run Linux applications using a graphical user interface , such as Audacity , directly in Windows, was introduced as a preview. The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 were initially the same as those for Windows 8 and Windows 8.
As of the May update, the minimum disk space requirement has been increased to 32 GB. In addition, on new installations, Windows permanently reserves up to 7 GB of disk space in order to ensure proper installation of future feature updates. The bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions.
Some pre-built devices may be described as “certified” by Microsoft. Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems. Windows 10 version and later do not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft’s stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period.
Starting with Windows 10 version , Microsoft will require new OEM devices to use bit processors, and will therefore cease the distribution of x86 bit variants of Windows 10 via OEM channels.
The bit variants of Windows 10 will remain available via non-OEM channels, and Microsoft will continue to “[provide] feature and security updates on these devices”.
The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 10 can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture. Windows 10 supports up to two physical processors. Windows 10 received generally positive reviews, with most reviewers considering it superior to its predecessor Windows 8. The Edge browser was praised for its performance, although it was not in a feature-complete state at launch. While considering them a “great idea in principle”, concerns were shown for Microsoft’s focus on the universal app ecosystem:.
It’s by no means certain that developers are going to flock to Windows 10 from iOS and Android simply because they can convert their apps easily. It may well become a no-brainer for them, but at the moment a conscious decision is still required. Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10’s user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic. Cortana’s always-on voice detection was considered to be its “true strength”, also citing its query capabilities and personalization features, but noting that it was not as pre-emptive as Google Now.
Windows 10’s stock applications were praised for being improved over their Windows 8 counterparts, and for supporting windowed modes. The Xbox app was also praised for its Xbox One streaming functionality, although recommending its use over a wired network because of inconsistent quality over Wi-Fi.
In conclusion, it was argued that “Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it’s so much more than that. It’s also a decent tablet OS, and it’s ready for a world filled with hybrid devices. And, barring another baffling screwup, it looks like a significant step forward for mobile. Heck, it makes the Xbox One a more useful machine.
On the other hand Ars Technica panned the new Tablet mode interface for removing the charms and app switching, making the Start button harder to use by requiring users to reach for the button on the bottom-left rather than at the center of the screen when swiping with a thumb, and for making application switching less instantaneous through the use of Task View.
Microsoft Edge was praised for being “tremendously promising”, and “a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was”, but criticized it for its lack of functionality on-launch. In conclusion, contrasting Windows 8 as being a “reliable” platform albeit consisting of unfinished concepts, Windows 10 was considered “the best Windows yet”, and was praised for having a better overall concept in its ability to be “comfortable and effective” across a wide array of form factors, but that it was buggier than previous versions of Windows were on-launch.
Critics have noted that Windows 10 heavily emphasizes freemium services, and contains various advertising facilities. Some outlets have considered these to be a hidden “cost” of the free upgrade offer. Due to the high system requirements of its Windows 10’s successor Windows 11 , some critics have cited Windows 10 being better than its successor and have warned not to switch to Windows 11 given its high system requirement despite very limited new features compared to Windows Up to August , Windows 10 usage was increasing, with it then plateauing ,  while eventually in , it became more popular than Windows 7   though Windows 7 was still more used in some countries in Asia and Africa in As of March [update] , the operating system is running on over a billion devices, reaching the goal set by Microsoft two years after the initial deadline.
Twenty-four hours after it was released, Microsoft announced that over 14 million devices were running Windows According to StatCounter, Windows 10 overtook Windows 8. For one week in late November , Windows 10 overtook first rank from Windows 7 in the United States, before losing it again.
In mid-January , Windows 10 had a slightly higher global market share than Windows 7,  with it noticeably more popular on weekends,  while popularity varies widely by region, e. Windows 10 was then still behind in Africa  and far ahead in some other regions e.
Windows 10 Home is permanently set to download all updates automatically, including cumulative updates, security patches, and drivers, and users cannot individually select updates to install or not.
Concerns were raised that because of these changes, users would be unable to skip the automatic installation of updates that are faulty or cause issues with certain system configurations—although build upgrades will also be subject to public beta testing via Windows Insider program.
An example of such a situation occurred prior to the general release of the operating system, when an Nvidia graphics card driver that was automatically pushed to Windows 10 users via Windows Update caused issues that prevented the use of certain functions, or prevented their system from booting at all.
Criticism was also directed towards Microsoft’s decision to no longer provide specific details on the contents of cumulative updates for Windows Some users reported that during the installation of the November upgrade, some applications particularly utility programs such as CPU-Z and Speccy were automatically uninstalled during the upgrade process, and some default programs were reset to Microsoft-specified defaults such as Photos app, and Microsoft Edge for PDF viewing , both without warning.
Further issues were discovered upon the launch of the Anniversary Update “Redstone” , including a bug that caused some devices to freeze but addressed by cumulative update KB, released on August 31, ,   and that fundamental changes to how Windows handles webcams had caused many to stop working.
A Gartner analyst felt that Windows 10 Pro was becoming increasingly inappropriate for use in enterprise environments because of support policy changes by Microsoft, including consumer-oriented upgrade lifecycle length, and only offering extended support for individual builds to Enterprise and Education editions of Windows Critics have acknowledged that Microsoft’s update and testing practices had been affecting the overall quality of Windows In particular, it was pointed out that Microsoft’s internal testing departments had been prominently affected by a major round of layoffs undertaken by the company in Microsoft relies primarily on user testing and bug reports via the Windows Insider program which may not always be of sufficient quality to identify a bug , as well as correspondence with OEMs and other stakeholders.
In the wake of the known folder redirection data loss bug in the version , it was pointed out that bug reports describing the issue had been present on the Feedback Hub app for several months prior to the public release. Following the incident, Microsoft updated Feedback Hub so that users may specify the severity of a particular bug report.
When announcing the resumption of ‘s rollout, Microsoft stated that it planned to be more transparent in its handling of update quality in the future, through a series of blog posts that will detail its testing process and the planned development of a “dashboard” that will indicate the rollout progress of future updates.
Microsoft was criticized for the tactics that it used to promote its free upgrade campaign for Windows 10, including adware -like behaviors,  using deceptive user interfaces to coax users into installing the operating system,     downloading installation files without user consent,   and making it difficult for users to suppress the advertising and notifications if they did not wish to upgrade to In September , it was reported that Microsoft was triggering automatic downloads of Windows 10 installation files on all compatible Windows 7 or 8.
Microsoft officially confirmed the change, claiming it was “an industry practice that reduces the time for installation and ensures device readiness. Other critics argued that Microsoft should not have triggered any downloading of Windows 10 installation files without user consent. In October , Windows 10 began to appear as an “Optional” update on the Windows Update interface, but pre-selected for installation on some systems. A Microsoft spokesperson said that this was a mistake, and that the download would no longer be pre-selected by default.
In March , some users also alleged that their Windows 7 and 8. It was concluded that these users may have unknowingly clicked the “Accept” prompt without full knowledge that this would begin the upgrade. On January 21, , Microsoft was sued in small claims court by a user whose computer had attempted to upgrade to Windows 10 without her consent shortly after the release of the operating system.
The upgrade failed, and her computer was left in a broken state thereafter, which disrupted the ability to run her travel agency.
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