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During the incident, an electrocardiogram ECG and blood pressure were recorded, and blood samples for determinations of biomarkers of cardiac muscle perturbation creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme CK-MB , cardiac troponin-T TnT , and myoglobin were collected.

The ECG revealed short periods of asystole during the period of ‘packing blackout’, simultaneous with pronounced reductions in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures. Serum myoglobin concentration was elevated 40 and min after the incident, whereas there were no changes in CK-MB or TnT.

The ultimate cause of syncope in this diver probably was a decrease in cerebral perfusion following glossopharyngeal insufflation. The asystolic periods recorded in this diver could possibly indicate that susceptible individuals may be put at risk of a serious cardiac incident if the lungs are excessively overinflated by glossopharyngeal insufflation. This concern is further substantiated by the observed increase in serum myoglobin concentration after the event.

Paced respiration with end-expiration technique offers superior BOLD signal repeatability for breath-hold studies. As a simple, non-invasive method of blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal calibration, the breath-hold task offers considerable potential for the quantification of neuronal activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI measurements. With an aim to improve the precision of this calibration method, the impact of respiratory rate control on the BOLD signal achieved with the breath-hold task was investigated.

In addition to self-paced breathing, three different computer-paced breathing rates were imposed during the periods between end-expiration breath-hold blocks. The resulting BOLD signal timecourses and statistical activation maps were compared in eleven healthy human subjects.

Results indicate that computer-paced respiration produces a larger peak BOLD signal increase with breath-hold than self-paced breathing, in addition to lower variability between trials.

This is due to the more significant post-breath-hold signal undershoot present in self-paced runs, a characteristic which confounds the definition of baseline and is difficult to accurately model.

Interestingly, the specific respiratory rate imposed between breath-hold periods generally does not have a statistically significant impact on the BOLD signal change. This result can be explained by previous reports of humans adjusting their inhalation depth to compensate for changes in rate, with the end-goal of maintaining homeostatic ventilation. The advantage of using end-expiration relative to end-inspiration breath-hold is apparent in view of the high repeatability of the BOLD signal in the present study, which does not suffer from the previously reported high variability associated with uncontrolled inspiration depth when using the end-inspiration technique.

The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum 1RM from the force – velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers 5 women and 22 men with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force – velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order.

Mean 1 RM was Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key pointsSome commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force- velocity relationship. These estimations are valid.

However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription. Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force- velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations. Key points Some commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force- velocity relationship.

Breath-hold device for laboratory rodents undergoing imaging procedures. The increased use in noninvasive imaging of laboratory rodents has prompted innovative techniques in animal handling.

Lung imaging of rodents can be a difficult task because of tissue motion caused by breathing, which affects image quality. The use of a prototype flat-panel computed tomography unit allows the acquisition of images in as little as 2, 4, or 8 s.

This short acquisition time has allowed us to improve the image quality of this instrument by performing a breath-hold during image acquisition.

We designed an inexpensive and safe method for performing a constant-pressure breath-hold in intubated rodents. Initially a prototypic manual 3-way valve system, consisting of a 3-way valve, an air pressure regulator, and a manometer, was used to manually toggle between the ventilator and the constant-pressure breath-hold equipment. The success of the manual 3-way valve system prompted the design of an electronically actuated valve system.

In the electronic system, the manual 3-way valve was replaced with a custom designed 3-way valve operated by an electrical solenoid. The electrical solenoid is triggered by using a hand-held push button or a foot pedal that is several feet away from the gantry of the scanner. This system has provided improved image quality and is safe for the animals, easy to use, and reliable. Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements.

Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei VN of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle “half-angle rule” of Listing’s law.

Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity , rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.

Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation SO2 and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control ABC in radiotherapy of tumor. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation SO2 variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed.

And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

We describe a clinical case study surrounding the behavioral assessment and operant treatment of, an adult with severe mental retardation who engaged in chronic breath-holding.

In this clinical case, previous neurological and medical testing had ruled out biological bases for the individual’s breath-holding. A functional behavioral assessment…. Agreement and repeatability of vascular reactivity estimates based on a breath-hold task and a resting state scan. By complementing a task-related BOLD acquisition with a vascular reactivity measure obtained through breath-holding or hypercapnia, this unwanted variance can be statistically reduced in the BOLD responses of interest.

Recently, it has been suggested that vascular reactivity can also be estimated using a resting state scan. This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches block design, sine—cosine regressor and CO2 regressor and a resting state approach CO2 regressor to measure vascular reactivity.

We tested BOLD variance explained by the model and repeatability of the measures. Fifteen healthy participants underwent a breath-hold task and a resting state scan with end-tidal CO2 being recorded during both. Maps and regional vascular reactivity estimates showed high repeatability when the breath-hold task was used.

Repeatability and variance explained by the CO2 trace regressor were lower for the resting state data based approach, which resulted in highly variable measures of vascular reactivity. We conclude that breath-hold based vascular reactivity estimations are more repeatable than resting-based estimates, and that there are limitations with replacing breath-hold scans by resting state scans for vascular reactivity assessment.

Both CO 2 inhalation followed by hyperventilation and breath-holding have been utilized to measure cerebral vasomotor reactivity VMR but their correlation has been poorly studied and understood. A retrospective study was conducted in subjects The mean BHI was 0. Move dish and sample into the cell culture This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches block design, sine-cosine regressor and CO2 regressor and a resting state approach CO2 regressor to measure vascular reactivity.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Boson sampling is a problem strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be naturally solved on a specialized photonic quantum simulator. The protocol requires only one single-photon source, two detectors, and a loop-based interferometer for an arbitrary number of photons.

The single-photon pulse train is time-bin encoded and deterministically injected into an electrically programmable multimode network. The observed three- and four-photon boson sampling rates are Volumetric velocity measurements in restricted geometries using spiral sampling : a phantom study.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of maximum velocity measurements using volumetric phase-contrast imaging with spiral readouts in a stenotic flow phantom. In a phantom model, maximum velocity , flow, pressure gradient, and streamline visualizations were evaluated using volumetric phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging MRI with velocity encoding in one extending on current clinical practice and three directions for characterization of the flow field using spiral readouts.

Results of maximum velocity and pressure drop were compared to computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations, as well as corresponding low-echo-time TE Cartesian data. Flow was compared to 2D through-plane phase contrast PC upstream from the restriction. Results obtained with 3D through-plane PC as well as 4D PC at shortest TE using a spiral readout showed excellent agreements with the maximum velocity values obtained with CFD velocity location, as well as the accurate velocity quantification can be obtained in stenotic regions using short-TE spiral volumetric PC imaging.

Marijuana smoking: effects of varying puff volume and breathhold duration. Two studies were conducted to quantify biological and behavioral effects resulting from exposure to controlled doses of marijuana smoke. Each study also varied levels of delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol marijuana cigarette content 1. Subjects smoked 10 puffs in each of six sessions; a seventh, nonsmoking session all measures recorded at the same times as in active smoking sessions served as a control.

Variations in puff volume produced significant dose-related changes in postsmoking plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels, carbon monoxide boost and subjective effects e. In contrast, breathholding for 10 or 20 sec versus 0 sec increased plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels but not CO boost or subjective effects. Task performance measures were not reliably influenced by marijuana smoke exposure within the dosing ranges examined.

These findings confirm the utility of the controlled smoking technology, support the notion that cumulative puff volume systematically influences biological exposure and subjective effects, but cast doubt on the common belief that prolonged breathholding of marijuana smoke enhances classical subjective effects associated with its reinforcing value in humans.

Zhang, Ziheng; Dione, Donald P. A novel MR imaging technique, spatial modulation of magnetization with polarity alternating velocity encoding SPAMM-PAV , is presented to simultaneously examine the left ventricular early diastolic temporal relationships between myocardial deformation and intra-cavity hemodynamics with a high temporal resolution of 14 ms.

This approach is initially evaluated in a dynamic flow and tissue mimicking phantom. A comparison of regional longitudinal strains and intra-cavity pressure differences integration of computed in-plane pressure gradients within a selected region in relation to mitral valve inflow velocities is performed in eight normal volunteers. Our results demonstrate that apical regions have higher strain rates 0. This pattern is reversed during the deceleration period, when the strain-rates in the basal regions are the highest 0.

A positive base-to-apex gradient in peak pressure difference is observed during acceleration, followed by a negative base-to apex gradient during deceleration. These studies shed insight into the regional volumetric and pressure difference changes in the left ventricle during early diastolic filling.

Breast tumor hemodynamic response during a breath-hold as a biomarker to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy: preclinical study. Therefore, it requires a perturbation of physiological signals, such as blood flow and oxygenation. In that sense, a few groups reported that monitoring a relative hemodynamic change during a breast tissue compression or a breath-hold to a patient can provide good contrast between tumor and nontumor.

However, no longitudinal study reports the utilization of a breath-hold to predict tumor response during chemotherapy. A continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor hemodynamics in rat breast tumor during a hyperoxic to normoxic inhalational gas intervention to mimic a breath-hold during tumor growth and chemotherapy.

The reduced oxyhemoglobin concentration during inhalational gas intervention correlated well with tumor growth, and it responded one day earlier than the change of tumor volume after chemotherapy. In conclusion, monitoring tumor hemodynamics during a breath-hold may serve as a biomarker to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of tumor. Left ventricle changes early after breath-holding in deep water in elite apnea divers.

To study by ultrasounds cardiac morphology and function early after breath-hold diving in deep water in elite athletes. Each subject performed a series of three consecutive breath-hold dives and 40 m depth. End-diastolic left ventricular LV diameter EDD and end-diastolic LV volume EDV increased significantly p breath-hold diving due to favorable changes in loading conditions relative to pre-diving, namely the recruitment of left ventricular preload reserve and the reduction in afterload.

Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water.

Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group 8 males and 2 females and a chocolate group 9 males and 1 female. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate.

A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

Validation of high temporal resolution spiral phase velocity mapping of temporal patterns of left and right coronary artery blood flow against Doppler guidewire. Temporal patterns of coronary blood flow velocity can provide important information on disease state and are currently assessed invasively using a Doppler guidewire. A non-invasive alternative would be beneficial as it would allow study of a wider patient population and serial scanning.

A retrospectively-gated breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping sequence TR 19 ms was developed at 3 Tesla. Velocity maps were acquired in 8 proximal right and 15 proximal left coronary arteries of 18 subjects who had previously had a Doppler guidewire study at the time of coronary angiography.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR velocity -time curves were processed semi-automatically and compared with corresponding invasive Doppler data. High temporal resolution breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping underestimates absolute values of coronary flow velocity but allows accurate assessment of the temporal patterns of blood flow.

MR imaging of the human heart without explicit cardiac synchronization promises to extend the applicability of cardiac MR to a larger patient population and potentially expand its diagnostic capabilities. However, conventional non-gated imaging techniques typically suffer from low image quality or inadequate spatio-temporal resolution and fidelity.

Patient-Adaptive Reconstruction and Acquisition in Dynamic Imaging with Sensitivity Encoding PARADISE is a highly-accelerated non-gated dynamic imaging method that enables artifact-free imaging with high spatio-temporal resolutions by utilizing novel computational techniques to optimize the imaging process.

In addition to using parallel imaging, the method gains acceleration from a physiologically-driven spatio-temporal support model; hence, it is doubly accelerated. The support model is patient-adaptive, i. The proposed method is also doubly adaptive as it adapts both the acquisition and reconstruction schemes.

Based on the theory of time-sequential sampling , the proposed framework explicitly accounts for speed limitations of gradient encoding and provides performance guarantees on achievable image quality. Determination of ethane, pentane and isoprene in exhaled air–effects of breath-holding , flow rate and purified air. Exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene have been proposed as biomarkers of oxidative stress. The objectives were to explore whether ethane, pentane and isoprene are produced within the airways and to explore the effect of different sampling parameters on analyte concentrations.

The flow dependency of the analyte concentrations, the concentrations in dead-space and alveolar air after breath-holding and the influence of inhaling purified air on analyte concentrations were investigated. The analytical method involved thermal desorption from sorbent tubes and gas chromatography.

The studied group comprised 13 subjects with clinically stable asthma and 14 healthy controls. After breath-holding , no significant changes in ethane levels were observed. Pentane and isoprene levels increased significantly after 20 s of breath-holding. Inhalation of purified air before exhalation resulted in a substantial decrease in ethane levels, a moderate decrease in pentane levels and an increase in isoprene levels.

The major fractions of exhaled ethane, pentane and isoprene seem to be of systemic origin. There was, however, a tendency for ethane to be flow rate dependent in asthmatic subjects, although to a very limited extent, suggesting that small amounts of ethane may be formed in the airways. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of piracetam on breath-holding spells.

Breath-holding spells BHS are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of breath-holding spells. Forty patients with BHS who were classified into two groups were involved in a double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective study. Piracetam was given to group A while group B received placebo. Patients were followed monthly for a total period of 4 months.

There was a significant decline of number of attacks after piracetam treatment compared to placebo p value breath-holding spells in children. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose.

A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument Proceq Pundit Lab was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples.

The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples , the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. In a series of breath-hold acquisitions, three-dimensional data were acquired initially for prospective image registration of subsequent BOLD measurements.

Prospective image registration and BOLD imaging of each kidney was achieved within a total measurement time of about 17 s, enabling its execution within a single breath-hold. Magn Reson Med , Sensory neurons integrate information about the world, adapting their sampling to its changes.

However, little is understood mechanistically how this primary encoding process, which ultimately limits perception, depends upon stimulus statistics. Here, we analyze this open question systematically by using intracellular recordings from fly Drosophila melanogaster and Coenosia attenuata photoreceptors and corresponding stochastic simulations from biophysically realistic photoreceptor models.

Simulations reveal how a photoreceptor’s information capture depends critically upon the stochastic refractoriness of its 30, sampling units microvilli. In daylight, refractoriness sacrifices sensitivity to enhance intensity changes in neural image representations, with more and faster microvilli improving encoding.

But for GWN and other stimuli, which lack longer dark contrasts of real-world intensity changes that reduce microvilli refractoriness, these performance gains are submaximal and energetically costly. Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: a review. Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension.

Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human divers regularly perform repeated dives to m or a single dive to more than m, all of which may result in nitrogen concentrations that elicit symptoms of decompression sickness. Neurological problems have been reported in humans after single or repeated dives and recent necropsy reports in stranded marine mammals were suggestive of decompression sickness-like symptoms.

Modelling attempts have suggested that marine mammals may live permanently with elevated nitrogen concentrations and may be at risk when altering their dive behaviour. In humans, non-pathogenic bubbles have been recorded and symptoms of decompression sickness have been reported after repeated dives to modest depths.

The mechanisms implicated in these accidents indicate that repeated breath-hold dives with short surface intervals are factors that predispose to decompression sickness.

Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts and ADC maps lesion characterisation, overall image quality ] per technique and ranked them.

Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b and b were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique.

For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1. Anonymized images were randomized for blinded review by two independent readers for image quality, artifact severity in 8 defined vessel segments and aortic dimensions in 6 standard sites. Comparison and reproducibility of ADC measurements in breathhold , respiratory triggered, and free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the liver.

To compare and determine the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient ADC measurements of the normal liver parenchyma in breathhold , respiratory triggered, and free-breathing diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging DWI. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent three series of DWI. ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared by using nonparametric tests. Reproducibility was assessed by the Bland-Altman method.

ADC measurements of the normal liver parenchyma in respiratory triggered DWI are significantly higher and less reproducible than in breathhold and free-breathing DWI.

Copyright c Wiley-Liss, Inc. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence.

We used a 1. Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system. Time-instant sampling based encoding of time-varying acoustic spectrum.

The inner ear has been shown to characterize an acoustic stimuli by transducing fluid motion in the inner ear to mechanical bending of stereocilia on the inner hair cells IHCs. Subsequently, the afferent auditory nerve fiber ANF bundle samples the encoded waveform in the IHCs by synapsing with them. In this work we focus on sampling of information by afferent ANFs from the IHCs, and show computationally that sampling at specific time instants is sufficient for decoding of time-varying acoustic spectrum embedded in the acoustic stimuli.

The approach is based on sampling the signal at its zero-crossings and higher-order derivative zero-crossings. We show results of the approach on time-varying acoustic spectrum estimation from cricket call signal recording. The framework gives a time-domain and non-spatial processing perspective to auditory signal processing. The approach works on the full band signal, and is devoid of modeling any bandpass filtering mimicking the BM action. Instead, we motivate the approach from the perspective of event-triggered sampling by afferent ANFs on the stimuli encoded in the IHCs.

Though the approach gives acoustic spectrum estimation but it is shallow on its complete understanding for plausible bio-mechanical replication with current mammalian auditory mechanics insights.

Reflex anoxic seizures ‘white breath-holding ‘ : nonepileptic vagal attacks. From clinical history 58 children were diagnosed as having reflex anoxic seizures secondary to provoked cardioinhibition also known as white breath-holding attacks. Before referral, these seizures were commonly misdiagnosed as epileptic either because the provocation was ignored, not recognised, or was a febrile illness, or because there was no crying, no obvious breath-holding , little cyanosis, and often no pallor to suggest syncope and cerebral ischaemia.

The duration of cardiac asystole after ocular compression was measured in these children and in 60 additional children with other paroxysmal disorders. Review of the literature supports the concept that these seizures result from vagal-mediated reflex cardiac arrest which can if necessary be prevented by atropine. The simple name ‘vagal attack’ is proposed. Images Figs. This work was aimed at estimating the concentrations of proteins encoded by human chromosome 18 Chr 18 in plasma samples of 54 healthy male volunteers aged These young persons have been certified by the medical evaluation board as healthy subjects ready for space flight training.

Over stable isotope-labeled peptide standards SIS were synthesized to perform the measurements of proteins encoded by Chr These proteins were quantified in whole and depleted plasma samples.

A minor part of the proteins mostly representing intracellular proteins was characterized by extremely high inter individual variations. The results provide a background for studies of a potential biomarker in plasma among proteins encoded by Chr Breath-holding spells may be associated with maturational delay in myelination of brain stem. To evaluate possible contribution of maturational delay of brain stem in the etiology of breath-holding spells in children using brain stem auditory evoked potentials.

The study group included children who experienced breath-holding spells. The control group consisted of healthy age- and sex-matched children. Age, gender, type and frequency of spell, hemoglobin, and ferritin levels in study group and brain stem auditory evoked potentials results in both groups were recorded. Study group was statistically compared with control group for brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The mean age of study and control groups was The III-V and I-V interpeak latencies were significantly prolonged in the study group compared with the control group 2.

At the same time, III-V and I-V interpeak latencies of patients without anemia in the study group compared with those of control group were significantly prolonged 2.

Our results consider that maturational delay in myelination of brain stem may have a role in the etiology of breath-holding spells in children. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors. Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

Preliminary observations on the effect of hypoxic and hyperbaric stress on pulmonary gas exchange in breath-hold divers. Pulmonary diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide DLCO and nitric oxide DLNO , haemoglobin Hb and haematocrit Hct were measured in six elite divers before and at 2, 10 and 25 minutes after a maximal breath-hold dive to a depth of 10 metres’ sea water.

Compared to pre-dive, DLCO showed a slight increase at 2 minutes in five subjects and a tendency to decrease at 25 minutes P breath-hold dive. Recent advances in echocardiography allow real-time 3-D dynamic image acquisition of the heart. However, one of the major limitations of 3-D echocardiography is the limited field of view, which results in an acquisition insufficient to cover the whole geometry of the heart. This study proposes the novel approach of fusing multiple 3-D echocardiography images using an optical tracking system that incorporates breath-hold position tracking to infer that the heart remains at the same position during different acquisitions.

The proposed method yielded a field of view improvement of To improve the quality of the fused image, a wavelet-based fusion algorithm was developed that computes pixelwise likelihood values for overlapping voxels from multiple image views. The proposed wavelet-based fusion approach yielded significant improvement in contrast The new data confirm the cylindrical rotation observed at -6 Degree-Sign and -8 Degree-Sign and are an excellent fit to themore » Shen et al.

N-body bar model. Our survey finds no strong evidence of previously unknown kinematic streams. We also publish our complete catalog of radial velocities , photometry, TiO band strengths, and spectra, which is available at the Infrared Science Archive as well as at UCLA. The effect of deep inspiration breath-hold on tumour oxygenation.

To investigate the influence of deep inspiration breath-hold on the oxygen tension of in-vivo tumours measured using an Eppendorf pO2 histograph.

Change in oxygen tension was assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. Thirty patients were entered in to this protocol. The median maximum tumour dimension was 4 cm.

The median of the median pO2 of these tumours was 18 mmHg. Oxygen tension measurements along pairs of tracks per tumour median of 2 were obtained. In six tumours, the values during NB were significantly higher than during DIBH, whereas, for six other tumours, the relationship was the opposite; for the remaining 18 patients, no significant difference was observed.

These data show heterogeneity of tumour oxygenation seen with in-situ tumours both at baseline and as a result of DIBH. Sherrah, Andrew G. Background Chronic descending thoracic aortic dissection CDTAD following surgical repair of ascending aortic dissection requires long-term imaging surveillance. We investigated four-dimensional 4D -flow magnetic resonance imaging MRI with a novel multi- velocity encoding multi-VENC technique as an emerging clinical method enabling the dynamic quantification of blood volume and velocity throughout the cardiac cycle.

Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge? Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide P a CO 2 levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients.

Asexual morph: Undetermined Myrmecridium fluviae Hyang B. Nguyen Notes: Sequence data is not available. River located in Gwangju, from a freshwater sample Phomatosporaceae Senan. Hyde Tibpromma et al. Phomatospora Sacc. Sexual morph Ascomata solitary to rarely sequence data are available. Peridium com- Notes: Holotype PRM , other specimens col- prising small, brown pseudoparenchymatous cells forming lected from freshwater habitats: PRM , PRM a textura angularis to textura prismatica or inner, hyaline, Asci 8-spored, unitu- Subbaromyces Hesselt.

Torrey bot. Club nicate, cylindrical or oblong-fusiform, thin-walled, short stalked or sessile, apex oblong with J-, apical apparatus. Asexual morph Conidiophores branched, septate.

Conidia Ascospores uniseriate, rarely biseriate, overlapping unise- hyaline, smooth-walled, asepate, exogenously formed, riate to biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform, 0—3-septate, not ellipsoid. Sexual morph Ascomata partially submerged, constricted at the septum, sometimes bi-guttulate, guttules later superficial, membranous, syringe-shaped, beak divi- located at the ends of the cell, or longitudinally striate, ded into two portions by a large pronounced collar, with sometimes with filamentous appendages at both ends, upper portion tapering to a small ostiole, surrounded by a hyaline.

Paraphyses absent. Asci 8-spored, uni- Type species: Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc. Ascospores bot. Senanayake et al. Club modate the genera Phomatospora, Lanspora and Notes: The genus was established by Hesseltine Tenuimurus. Members of the genus Phomatospora are for a taxon collected from trickling filter rocks in New widely distributed in freshwater, marine and terrestrial York, USA.

Two species were accepted within this genus habitats. Seven species of Phomatospora are known from Hesseltine ; Chary and Ramarao Muroi samples collected in India. In updated Sequence data is not Maharachchikumbura et al. Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc Subbaromyces aquaticus Manohar. Freunde, Berlin stems of Typha latifolia; Wisconsin, Trout lake, on sub- 3 1—2 : 41 merged stems of Carex comosa, Big Muskellunge lake, on Asexual morph Descriptions and illustrations refer to Su submerged stems of Scirpus brevicaudatus, Allequash lake, et al.

Sexual morph Descriptions and illustrations on submerged stems of Typha latifolia Fallah and Shearer refer to Zhang et al. Type species: Sporidesmium atrum Link, Mag. Asexual morph: Undetermined naturf. Sporidesmium Phomatospora is a large and heterogeneous genus with epithets berkeleyi was originally collected from dead stalks of referred to the genus in Index Fungorum December Solanum on terrestrial habitats Saccardo Fallah and However, many previously described species were revised Shearer collected this species from freshwater and transferred to over 30 genera Iturriaga et al.

Studies based on phylogenetic analyses have been carried Phomatospora helvetica H. Lechat Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum J. Park, on submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium cangshanense Z. Hyde, Asexual morph: Undetermined nom. Sequence data is not Facesoffungi number: FoF available. Su, Z. Sequence data is not cangshanense. Sporidesmium dulongense Luo et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that Sexual morph: Undetermined Sporidesmium lageniforme and S.

TEF1a sequence data are available. Sporidesmium lignicola Z. Su, Sporidesmium fluminicola H. Hyde sp. Etymology: Referring to the fungus dwelling on wood. Asexual morph Colonies effuse on natural sub- Sporidesmium gyrinomorphum Yang et al. Mycelium Distribution: Thailand, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, immersed, composed of septate, branched, brown, smooth on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream Yang hyphae.

Conidiophores 50—70 lm long, 3—4 lm wide et al. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, 17— Conidia 21—27 lm long, 4. Ostiole — lm long, 78— lm wide, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater. Peridium 30—44 lm thick, two- effuse, scattered, hairy, black. Mycelium mostly immersed, layered, outer layer comprising pale brown to brown, comprising of branched, septate, smooth-walled, brown oblong and rounded cells, inner layer comprising several hyphae. Paraphyses 2.

Asci greyish brown to dark brown, smooth. Sporidesmium lageniforme differs erumpent through the host surface, hyaline, unbranched, from S.

The asexual an apical ring and fusiform, hyaline ascospores Zhang morph of Sporidesmium lignicola can be easily distin- et al. However, Sporidesmium lignicola differs from guished from other Sporidesmium asexual morph species in S. We therefore small guttules, while S. Hyde larette funnel-shaped. Conidia cylindrical, ellipsoid or Distribution: Thailand, Chiang Rai Province, stream obovoid, thick-walled, brown, aseptate. Paraphyses Sporidesmium pyriformatum J.

Hyde present but deliquescent, irregular in width, rarely septate, Distribution: Thailand, Khiri Khan Province, Hua Hin, tapering towards the apices, embedded in a mucilaginous stream flowing outside Kaeng Krachan National Park, on matrix. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium submersum H. Pinruan et al.

This species was apparently linked sequence data are available. This Sporidesmium thailandense Dong et al. Tirisporellaceae, typified by a new genus Tirisporella a, b; Yang et al. Jones, K. The genus Thailan- Asexual morph: Undetermined diomyces phylogenetically resides in this family. Sporidesmium tropicale M. Togniniales Senan. Sporidesmium hyphae, single or bundled. Conidiophores branched in the tropicale was found on dead branches of woody plants and basal region or unbranched, arising from aerial or sub- is widely distributed in tropical areas Ellis ; Wu and merged hyphae, erect, nearly cylindrical when unbranched, Zhuang Conidiogenous cells mostly monophialidic, discrete or Tirisporellales Suetrong et al.

Conidia aggregated into round, slimy heads at Fungal Diversity 91 the apices of phialides, aseptate, hyaline, smooth-walled; Asexual morph Colonies on natural substrate effuse, oblong-ellipsoidal to obovate, cylindrical, allantoid or black.

Mycelium superficial. Conidiophores macronema- reniform, uncommonly fusiform-ellipsoidal or globose, tous, mononematous, erect, brown, paler towards the apex, becoming guttulate with age. Sexual morph Ascomata straight or flexuous, branched or unbranched. Culture on PDA from above h and reverse i. Paraphyses abundant, broadly cellular, slightly conical around the ostiole, papillate, dark brown to black, constricted at the septa, branching, hyaline, slightly taper- glabrous.

Peridium leathery to fragile, consisting of two ing apically or thread-like towards the apex. Asci 8-spored, regions; outer region of carbonaceous, dark brown, angular unitunicate, arising in acropetal succession, appearing to rectangular cells; inner region of hyaline, thin-walled, spicate when mature, ascal apex thickened without a dis- elongated, compressed cells.

Ostiolar canal periphysate. As- Paraphyses persistent, branched, hyaline, septate, irregular cospores mostly biseriate or in a single row, allantoid, in width. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical-clavate, reniform, cylindrical or oblong-ellipsoidal, aseptate, with long, slender stipe, broadly rounded to truncate at the hyaline. Wang Gams et al.

Notes: Phaeoacremonium has recently been mono- Type species: Brachysporium obovatum Berk. Abellini 4: Maharachchikumbura et al. Phaeoacremonium Notes: The asexual morph genus Brachysporium was species are saprobic on plants, or pathogenic on human and established by Saccardo in Gramaje et al.

Many Brachysporium species were this species as Phaeoacremonium aquaticum. Mycologia 6 : Some species were also described from marine habitats, e. Among the accepted Brachyspo- Mengla County, on submerged wood in a small stream Hu rium species, only two are known from freshwater habitats et al. Lamore and Goos ; Raja et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium obovatum Berk. ITS sequence data is : Helminthosporium obovatum Berk. Magazine of Natural History 6: Phaeoacremonium ovale Huang et al.

Notes: Sequence data is not available. Sexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium nigrum Link S. Trichosphaeriales M. Winter available. Brachysporium Sacc. Abellini 4: Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown, velvety. Myce- Unisetosphaeria Pinnoi et al. Sexual morph Ascomata subhyaline to brown hyphae. Conidiophores mononema- immersed to superficial, scattered, pyriform, hyaline to tous, macronematous, erect, straight or slightly flexuous, light brown, dark brown near the apex, coriaceous, ostio- smooth, thick-walled, septate, unbranched, cylindrical, late, papillate.

Papilla periphysate, surrounded by short brown in the bottom, paler and tapering toward the apex. Seta single, composed of several rows of brown Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, terminal, integrated, cells, arising from the ostiolar region.

Peridium composed hyaline, denticulate, proliferating sympodially. Conidia of angular brown-walled cells. Paraphyses sparse, obscure, acropleurogenous, septate, smooth, thick-walled, fusoid to comprising short rows of ovoid to oblong cells. Asci limoniform, polar cells subhyaline, narrowing at the apex, 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, short pedicellate, apically median cells brown. Ascospores and acropleurogenous, aseptate or septate conidia Hughes 2-seriate, septate, hyaline.

The Type species: Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi phylogenetic analysis show that our Neospadicoides spe- et al. Its taxonomic placement was between coidaceae Xenospadicoidales Fig. Chaetosphaeriaceae and Trichosphaeriaceae. However, Neospadicoides aquatica Z. Su, Unisetosphaeri penguinoides has several incompatible sp.

The characters of asco- number: FoF , Fig. Thus, it was fungus. This suggestion was followed by Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Maharachchikumbura et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi et al.

Mycelium partly superficial, partly immersed, Distribution: Thailand, Narathiwat Province, on sub- composed of septate, branched, smooth, pale brown merged petiole of Eleiodoxa conferta Pinnoi et al. Sequence data is not mononematous, solitary or in groups, erect, unbranched, available. Xenospadicoidales Hern. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, integrated, terminal, sub- Xenospadicoidaceae Hern.

Conidia 18—22 lm Neospadicoides Z. Asexual morph Colonies led. Mycelium partly Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Gaoligong superficial, partly immersed, composed of septate, bran- Mountain, saprobic on decaying wood submerged in a fresh- ched, smooth, pale brown hyphae.

Conidiophores water stream, July , X. Conidiogenous americana in having macronematous, mononematous, cells holoblastic, enteroblastic, percurrent, polytretic, erect, unbranched, septate, solitary or in groups conidio- integrated, terminal. Conidia acrogenous or acropleuroge- phores paler towards the apex, integrated, terminal conid- nous, fusiform, obovoid, septate, smooth-walled. Sexual iogenous cells and 2-septate, smooth conidia Wongsawas morph Undetermined.

However, Neospadicoides aquatica differs Type species: Neospadicoides lignicola Z. Su 18—22 9 7—9 vs. Spadicoides in having effuse, hairy colonies on natural Neospadicoides lignicola Z. Su, substrate, mycelium composed of septate, branched, sp. However, Holotype: MFLU 18— Neospadicoides differs from Spadicoides in having Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater unbranched conidiophores and acrogenous or acropleu- habitats. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark rogenous, septate conidia while Spadicoides have branched brown.

Culture on MEA, q from above, r from reverse. Scale bars: c— towards the apex, straight or slightly flexuous, cylindrical, f 50 lm, g—p 15 lm septate, smooth, thick-walled, occasionally swollen at the apex. Conidiogenous cells polytretic, integrated, terminal and intercalary, with pale colored pores remaining at the conidiogenous loci.

Conidia 7. Sexual morph towards the apex, smooth. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, Undetermined. Sexual morph coides hodgkissa in having macronematous, mononema- Undetermined. However, Neospadicoides yunnanensis or in groups, erect, unbranched, septate, straight or flexu- differs from Spadicoides hodgkissa in having pale brown ous, cylindrical, brown conidiophores paler towards the conidia with dark band at basal euseptum while Spadi- apex, integrated, terminal conidiogenous cells and obovoid, coides hodgkissa has versicolored conidia comprising a septate, guttulate conidia this study.

However, proximal euseptum and a distal distoseptum and the distal Neospadicoides lignicola differs from N. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that N. Hughes, Can. Hughes with S. Goh and Neospadicoides yunnanensis Z.

Hyde a briefly discussed the generic concept of Su, sp. Thirty-one Spadicoides species were revised, Index Fungorum number: IF , Facesoffungi of which 21 species were accepted. Presently, 55 epithets number: FoF , Fig. Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Seven species are known from freshwater habitats habitats. Asexual morph Colonies on decaying wood Goh and Hyde a; Ho et al. Mycelium partly immersed in the a, a, b, c; Zhuang Wang branched hyphae. Scale bars: e, imen.

HMZFW Type species: Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Spadicoides atra Corda S. Hughes Res. Torrentispora Distribution: China, Hong Kong, on submerged wood comprises seven species from freshwater habitats.

Zhuang Torrentispora aquatica Vijaykr. LSU sequence data is available. Hyde Torrentispora biatriispora K. Distribution: Australia, Queensland, on submerged Mill. Sequence data is not : Pseudoannulatascus biatriisporus K. Hyde Z.

This species is known only from Australia on Luo et al. Reservoir, on submerged wood Tsui et al. Distribution: France, on submerged wood of Fraxinus a. In this study, we introduce a new species and a is presented. RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater than new combination for this genus. Maximum parsimony have been reported from freshwater habitats. Newly generated sequences K.

Hyde, comb. Ex-type strains are in bold : Barbatosphaeria aquatica N. Hyde, in Hyde et al. Sequence data is Ban Nang Lae Nai, on decaying wood submerged in a unavailable.

Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Our phylo- on decaying wood of Nothofagus sp. Morphology of specimen collected from freshwater habitats PDD Hyde diophores; monoblastic, terminal, integrated conidiogenous Distribution: Brunei, on submerged wood Fryar and cells; solitary, dry, clavate, green to brown conidia, with Hyde Sequence data is not phylogenetic analyses, we synonymize Barbatosphaeria available. This species is known only from Brunei on aquatica under Acrodictys aquatica.

Su, and Hyde Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling in a Asexual morph: Undetermined stream. Notes: Holotype ILL Sequence data is not Holotype: DLU available. This species is known only from Costa Rica, on Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater submerged wood Barbosa et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark brown to Diaporthomycetidae family incertae sedis black.

Conidiophores 98— lm long, 4—6 lm wide Acrodictyaceae J. Ellis, Mycol. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, Type species. Acrodictys bambusicola M. Ellis, integrated, terminal, cylindrical, lageniform to doliiform, Mycol. Ellis as the type species. There are 45 nous, solitary, muriform, broadly clavate, obovoid to epithets listed in Index Fungorum December Until pyriform, usually with 2—3 transverse septa and a few , identification of Acrodictys-like species was based longitudinal septa, with conspicuous pores in each cells, on morphology.

Xia et al. Culture on PDA from above j and reverse k. Sexual morph shan Mountain, saprobic on decaying wood submerged in a Ascomata immersed, globose to subglobose, dark brown to freshwater stream, October , L. Wang, S DLU black, — lm high, — lm diam.

Neck black, Notes: Acrodictys fluminicola resembles the generic cylindrical, straight to slightly flexuous, converging radi- type A. Peridium 25—40 lm thick, leathery to fragile, 2-lay- ched and septate conidiophores dark brown at the base, ered.

Outer layer consisting of thick-walled, brown, narrower and paler toward the apex, solitary, muriform, polyhedral to elongate cells of textura prismatica to textura obovoid to pyriform conidia slightly constricted at the angularis, towards the interior grading into several layers of septa, with obconical basal cell and the size of conidio- thin-walled pale brown to subhyaline flattened cells.

Pa- phores and conidia of these two species are almost similar raphyses septate, slightly constricted at the septa, wider Xia et al. Phylogenetic analysis also stipe, ascal apex broadly rounded to obtuse. Ascospores 5— shows that Acrodictys fluminicola and A. Phylogenetically, A. Heilong stream, 15 March , Z. Alegria, Liput River, on submerged bamboo culm Cai hippocrepida in having globose to subglobose, dark brown et al. However, B. In this study, we introduce one new species and this illustration refer to Zhang et al.

Sexual morph is the only known Barbatosphaeria species collected from Description and illustration refer to Liu et al. Type species: Conlarium dupliciascospora F. Barbatosphaeria lignicola Z. Cai, Mycologia 5 : Hyde, sp. Scale bars: b 50 lm, c—g 20 lm Conlarium aquaticum Dong et al. Type species: Riomyces rotundus A. Ferrer, A. TEF1a sequence data obtained from ex-type culture are Riomyces rotundus Ferrer et al. Cai submerged wood Ferrer et al. Asexual morph Description and illustrations see Ariya- Riomyces Ferrer et al.

Sexual morph Description and illus- Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Descrip- trations see Zhang et al. Scale bars: d, g— Type species: Junewangia sphaerospora W.

The species of Junewangia are characterized by Type species: Dictyosporella aquatica Abdel-Aziz, slightly flared conidiophores with annellidic, percurrent Fungal Divers proliferation, cylindrical or narrowly cuneate conidio- Notes: Ariyawansa et al.

Seven species are accepted in the genus accommodated it in family Annulatascaceae. Junewangia and only one of them was collected from a, b introduced a sexual morph species Dic- freshwater habitats in China Song et al. Dong, H.

Hyde Junewangia aquatica H. Hu for this genus which was collected from freshwater, and Distribution: China, Yunnan Province, Mengla, stream they moved this genus from Annulatascaceae to Dia- in rubber trees field, on submerged wood Song et al. Song et al. This species is only known tioned in their study. Our phylogenetic analysis based on from the type locality.

Sporidesmiella P. Kirk According to our phylogenetic result, Dictyosporella is Asexual morph Descriptions and illustrations see Wu and transferred from Diaporthomycetidae genera incertae sedis Zhuang ; Sexual morph Undetermined. Three species were accepted in this Type species: Sporidesmiella claviformis P. Kirk, genus and all were collected from freshwater habitats. Kirk to accommodate the species previously descri- decayed stem of Phragmites australis Ariyawansa et al.

Sporidesmiella resembles Repetophragma but differs in its Sexual morph: Undetermined distoseptate conidia Kirk ; Subramanian Junewangiaceae while Repetophragma belongs in Pseu- Dictyosporella hydei H. Hu dosporidesmiaceae Fig. In this study, we Distribution: China, Yunnan Province, Mengla, on report three Sporidesmiella species which were collected submerged wood in a small stream Song et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Sporidesmiella aquatica Z.

LSU sequence data is sp. Holotype: MFLU 18— a, b. Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Asexual morph: Undetermined habitats. Mycelium partly superficial, partly RPB2 sequence data are available. Conidiophores — lm long, 8—10 lm Junewangia W. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, polyblastic, ing wood submerged in a freshwater stream, August , sympodial, integrated, terminal, subterminal, subhyaline to H.

DLUCC Sexual morph TEF1a sequence data for this species. The species Spor- Undetermined. This species and the type variety were freshwater stream, October , Z. Shen, Upadhyay and Mankau During an investigation on lignicolous fresh- perma in having macronematous, mononematous, erect, water fungi in China, a Sporidesmiella-like fungus was unbranched, septate, cylindrical conidiophores, integrated, collected from Yunnan Province and the morphological terminal conidiogenous cells with percurrent or sympodial characters of our new collection fits well with S.

However, S. Phylogenetic analysis aquatica differs from S. Based on the morphology Sporidesmiella novae-zelandiae S. Hughes Madrid et al. Hughes, N. Jl Bot. Kirk : Sporidesmiella hyalosperma var. Hughes P. Kirk, Trans. Hughes H. Mycelium partly superficial, partly Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater immersed, composed of septate, branched, smooth, pale habitats. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, hairy, yellow brown hyphae.

Conidiophores — lm long, 5—7 lm brown to brown. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, polyblastic, mononematous, erect, unbranched, septate, straight or sympodial, integrated, terminal, later becoming subtermi- flexuous, cylindrical, yellow—brown, paler towards the nal, subhyaline to pale brown, with percurrent or sympo- apex, smooth. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, polyblastic, dial proliferations. Conidia 17—21 lm long, 8—10 lm wide sympodial, integrated, terminal, subhyaline to pale brown.

Sexual morph clavate or obovoid, rounded at the apex, truncate at the Undetermined. Sporidesmiella hyalosperma is the most lutao, Natigbasan Creek, on submerged wood Wong et al. Morpholog- b. Therefore, RPB2 sequence data are available. Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Hyde, Mycol. Sexual morph Descrip- globose to ellipsoid, solitary, dark brown to black.

Ostiole tions and illustrations refer to Ranghoo et al. Para- collected from freshwater habitats. This species is only physes 4—6 lm wide, hyaline, unbranched, septate, slightly known from the type locality. Fluminicola Wong et al. Sexual morph Descrip- stream, November , Z. Asexual morph: Undetermined a, b introduced three species which were collected Notes: Holotype MFLU 15—, other specimen col- from a freshwater River in southern Thailand.

Fluminicola brown, smooth hyphae. Conidiophores 54—90 lm long, 3— thailandensis was introduced by Zhang et al. Conidiogenous northern Thailand, an Annulatascaceae-like fungus was cells polyblastic, sympodial, denticulate, integrated, ter- collected from Chiang Rai Province. Morphologically, the minal, subhyaline, with pale brown scar. Phylogenetic analysis based on narrow at apex, truncate at base, smooth-walled.

We compared the ITS sequences , Z. Wongia aquatica is the first 14— Based on morphology and phylogeny, we asexual morph species in the genus Wongia. Phylogeneti- identify our species as Fluminicola thailandensis. Wongia Khemmuk et al. Mycelium partly immersed, composed of branched, Diluviicola Hyde et al.

Conidiophores macrone- matous, mononematous, solitary, erect, straight or flexu- Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Description ous, unbranched, septate, dark brown, smooth. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, denticulate, integrated, Type species: Diluvicola capensis K. Hyde, S. Jones, Fungal Divers 1: form, 3-septate, guttulate, dark brown at central two cells, Notes: Hyde et al. Sexual morph Descriptions refer to Khemmuk et al.

Diluviicola aquatica W. Hyde, Type species: Wongia garrettii P. Notes: Khemmuk et al. In this study, we introduce an asexual Wongia Diluviicola capensis Hyde et al. Etymology: Referring to the aquatic habitat of this Sequence data is unavailable.

Sexual morph Description Saprobic on submerged decaying wood. Asexual and illustrations see Wong and Hyde a, b. Type species: Pseudoproboscispora aquatica S. Hyde Punith. Previous studies showed that Ver. Rhamphoria pyriformis Pers. Hyde : Sphaeria pyriformis Pers. Japan, Koito River, on reported that Rhamphoria pyriformis was found submerged wood Tsui et al. Rhodoveronaea Arzanlou et al. Asexual morph Colonies velvety, floccose; surface oliva- : Ceriospora caudae-suis Ingold, Trans.

Hyphae pale olivaceous, smooth, thin-walled. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, termi- Johnson County, Lousiana, Caldwell Parish, Mississippi, nally integrated, sympodial, smooth, thick-walled, pale Franklin County, New York, Adirondack Park, North brown, rachis straight, occasionally geniculate, with Carolina, Cheoah River, Oregon, Florence County, Penn- crowded, slightly prominent conidium-bearing denticles, sylvania, Columbia County, Tennessee, Great Smoky denticles flat-tipped, slightly pigmented.

Conidia solitary, Mountains National Park, West Virginia, Pocahontas ellipsoidal to obovoidal, aseptate to multiseptate, with a County, Wisconsin, Adams County, on submerged wood in protruding base and a marginal basal frill, pale brown, lentic or lotic habitats Campbell et al.

Because of the inductive load, a decrease in frequency lowers its impedance and causes a large increase in current. The limiting factor in the inverter board is the ripple current in the DC capacitors.

Please see Table 19 for more information regarding design limitations. The mechanical output power of the motor is also compared to that of the PSC run method, as seen in Figure Losses in the inverter The inverter board is constructed as an run motor can be attributed to the inverter itself and to application-specific platform rather than a general the switching elements. However, it does provide 2. The inverter is strictly The PSC method has an almost unity power factor.

Most of the parts in the bill of materials therefore, it wastes energy in the power grid. After reading this section, the around W. The inverter hardware. A drop-in replacement scenario should note this key difference. Although the inverter board can lift a heavier gate at Overview faster speeds, the rate of work is considerably less Figure 31 shows a top-level overview of the overall when driving a split-phase motor with no run capacitor. As the motor spins, the microcontroller inserted for V systems with a V motor.

Note: Please see Table 20 for configuration settings. Incorrect jumper settings may cause the board to malfunction. It is then rectified to a DC bus voltage. Each 15V power source is then down-converted to 5V from a linear regulator. The user interface uses optocouplers as isolation for safety issues. The printed circuit board has a clear indicator in silkscreen that designates what is safe to touch.

After validation passes, the user can use the inverter board as described in Table 7. Note the size and type of motor to be attached to the board. Program either the single-phase hex file or the three-phase hex file onto the board by using the header at P1. Place a fuse into the fuse holder at F1 that can pass the rated motor current. Connect the three motor wires to terminal P4.

Refer to Figure 3 for single-phase motor connections. Connect your input voltage of either V or V to terminal P3. Refer to Table 20 for jumper settings. Place the wiper in POT1 to its halfway point. Place the wiper in POT0 fully clockwise. Press either S0 and S1 to start the motor. The motor should slowly ramp up to its maximum speed at Hz modulation.

Slowly turn POT0 counterclockwise to slow the motor to a halt. Turning it fully counterclockwise will turn the motor in the opposite direction. Adjusting POT1 will trigger an automatic shutdown if the trip point threshold is met. The trip LED will illuminate when this happens. The user must press S0 or S1 to start up the motor again after an emergency shutdown event.

AN Feature Summary The inverter board was designed with flexibility in mind; therefore, some of the features listed in Table 8 can be omitted to optimize performance with cost. There is still plenty of space for the developer to use custom modifications. Table 9 shows how much code space and how many modules are used to meet the design specifications. All of the user interface requirements are isolated via two When switch 1 SW1 is pressed, the output voltage is four-channel optocouplers and a one-channel 3.

Table 11 lists the user interface inputs and outputs. The electrical specifications for the PIC16F and all of the enhanced mid-range 1 N Current Limit Control devices specify a maximum input low voltage of 0.

This means that for IOC to work correctly, an input The board provides two switch buttons and two should be higher than 2V when active and lower than potentiometers. There are also headers that provide 1V when inactive. The output is therefore approximately linear, The code has numerous comments surrounding all since the optocoupler LED does not have a linear I-V functions and important properties to help the reader curve. Large currents in the 30 mA range are easily modify the operation.

Some of the code used in consumed for each POT. The modulation routines in particular are to cause an interrupt-on-change IOC when either of based around this reference. Parts of the text will be them is used. This alleviates the CPU from constantly replicated throughout this chapter for convenience. The and 5.

When switch 0 SW0 is pressed, it is considered active and the output voltage reads close to 5V, as seen in Equation 7. The main line code is separated from the hardware of the inverter itself. The main loop consists of a simple state machine. IDLE Motor is off while polling for button presses. Soft-stop is performed gradually here until the motor has been stopped completely, or it brakes.

Upon entry, the motor starts in its IDLE state where the microcontroller initializes pins and stops the motor. The motor starts using the soft-start method where the frequency and voltage are adjusted in a linear fashion in order to slowly bring the motor up to operating speed. The motor speed and current trip points are continuously polled in the main loop. If SW1 is pressed, the motor is stopped by either braking or by soft-stop. The state machine returns to state IDLE.

AN A structure diagram of the important files and their methods and properties are shown in Figure No blocking code other and phase parameter and it saves all 64 values in a than this routine is within the ISR. All other interrupts pre-filled buffer. The soft-start routine pace of are serviced outside of the interrupt vector to give increment is limited by how fast this routine can precedence to the modulation routines. When the motor is steadily running, the buffer will not change often, since the two inputs are typically This file acts as a facade to the main.

The constant. This is referenced in most other files. This position divided by the number of frequency, timer intervals, trip points, etc. This file is included in every source file. The ADC files are also referenced here for multiplexing purposes. No Any auxiliary No interrupts? Figure 36 shows a flowchart of the ISR. The majority of the software processing power is spent calculating the next PWM values and polling for user inputs, such as trip sensors and speed control.

Figure 37 shows the general overview of the driving stage. These sections are the primary the easiest way to generate a sine wave. The focus of the code. The sine values are read from the table at predefined intervals to create a specific modulation A global structure, mod, is kept in RAM, which frequency.

Table 14 lists the three modulation structure to scale how fast or slow the modulation moves through members. This variable can therefore be left to overflow. The lower eight bits of the Frequency pointer variable can be viewed as fractional bits. The voltage parameter is derived the modulation frequency by 0. This PWM frequency will result in a different resolution.

Equation The voltage sampling rate can be If value is added to delta at each PWM interrupt, then the resultant modulation will be 60 Hz. The source of this method is AN listed under Reference 7.

For duty cycle. These scaled values are saved in a more information, please refer to pages 5, 6 and 9 of byte array in RAM for quick access in the ISR. It the above-mentioned application note. Checks are in place to ensure that the voltage does not go below the pre-configured minimum value.

CalcPhase define. The entire configuration is within a takes the scaled POT0 reading as an input and returns common. Other defines, which depend on the a value between 0 and These defines should be modified with ideal frequencies to ensure that the voltage is held extreme care.

This is called every TMR2 overflow. The returned If this is commented out, it will value from the sine table is assigned to the first PWM disable CLC4 from outputting pointer variable. This is second and third phase outputs after the angle DEBUG used primarily as one of the parameter is incremented according to the predefined tests in the acceptance phase offset. A value of 0x between modulation document see Section outputs will generate a degree phase shift.

It on this as a heartbeat. General experiences have operational frequency. High-switching frequencies can also cause bearing damages. However, a switching frequency increase results in the motor voltage FFT improvement and, therefore, it tends to improve the motor thermal performance besides reducing noise.

The default code already contains three predefined frequencies of: 1. The frequencies above were selectively chosen so as to minimize the overhead in calculations by using powers of 2 shifts only for multiplication and division. An isolated user input is labeled as being active when the input on the isolated side is driven high at typically 5V.

Table 17 shows the relative user configurable defines. Rotating the POT counter clockwise from the fully clockwise position will decrease the motor from full speed to idle and then full speed in reverse, as seen in Figure The biasing of S1 and S2, as well as all of the auxiliary inputs, is designed to allow the greatest voltage differential between the shared active elements.

This is achieved by carefully-selected resistors in a voltage divider network. This network provides a small voltage reading that is proportional to the current in the motor, as seen in Table Use this setting if the user wishes to reallocate the current trip POT to some other usage.

Make this a multiple of 2 for code speed. A low-cost solution is one that selects the minimum amount of parts with as little performance overhead as possible to run the application. Table 19 highlights some components that limit the flexibility of the inverter board. This design ensures that under full load, none of the components will be performing out of specification. This section will explore design limitations and optimizations that can be made.

AN DC Bus Voltage Capacitors The voltage doubler consists of two capacitors that can optionally be configured by a single jumper W1 to The default DC bus capacitors have a capacitance of double the input voltage, as seen in Figure Too much heat dissipation will prematurely V Voltage V damage the capacitor.

The ripple current is related to the ripple voltage. The input frequency, or refresh rate, for the DC 12 13 in capacitors and total capacitance bank varies depending on whether the voltage doubler jumper is inserted. The driving stage uses an International Rectifier three-phase gate driver for high-voltage applications.

If the W1 jumper is inserted, then the voltage across The design consideration between selecting FETs or both ends of the capacitors will be as seen in IGBTs is usually a function of switching frequency and Equation The IGBT in this particular voltage, but at a cost of increased ripple voltage and D2Pak can, therefore, dissipate up to 3.

If this happens, the capacitors 1. The FET can handle 2. It is Each capacitor will only see one half of the sine wave critical that the designer should note that the data sheet cycle. Therefore, the ripple voltage for the voltage specification of maximum current does not imply that doubler scenario will have a frequency that reflects the the device can handle that amount without a heat sink input frequency on a ratio see Equation AN Lower current applications will benefit from using FETs, Do not replace the fast-acting with general purpose while higher current applications with larger motors diodes.

The diodes must be fast-acting in order to should use IGBTs. Once the capacitors are energized, the resistance of the NTC will decrease rapidly to a very low value.

A few items of data are needed to scale an inrush current limiter: 1. Load capacitance of device to be protected 2. Steady-state current IMAX and maximum ambient temperature 3. Required reduction of inrush current to determine R25 of NTC inrush current limiters 4. For further details, please see Epcos application note The designer should determine the trade offs of the two listed under Reference 9.



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